I was reading my report at the Fourth Congress of the Communist
The horses and cows are considerably smaller than those of our country. No one need journey so far north, however, to see stunted cattle. Already, in Galicia, the cows and horses of the peasants are not a whit larger or stronger than those in Iceland. The Icelandic cows are further remarkable only for their peculiarly small horns; the sheep are also smaller than ours.
Every peasant keeps horses. The mode of feeding them is, as already shewn, very simple; the distances are long, the roads bad, and large rivers, moorlands, and swamps must frequently be passed; so every one rides, both men, women, and children. The use of carriages is as totally unknown throughout the island as in Syria.
The immediate vicinity of Reikjavik is pretty enough. Some of the townspeople go to much trouble and expense in sometimes collecting and sometimes breaking the stones around their dwellings. With the little ground thus obtained they mix turf, ashes, and manure, until at length a soil is formed on which something will grow. But this is such a gigantic undertaking, that the little culture bestowed on the spots wholly neglected by nature cannot be wondered at. Herr Bernhoft shewed me a small meadow which he had leased for thirty years, at an annual rent of thirty kreutzers. In order, however, to transform the land he bought into a meadow, which yields winter fodder for only one cow, it was necessary to expend more than 150 florins, besides much personal labour and pains. The rate of wages for peasants is very high when compared with the limited wants of these people: they receive thirty or forty kreutzers per diem, and during the hay-harvest as much as a florin.
For a long distance round the town the ground consists of stones, turf, and swamps. The latter are mostly covered with hundreds upon hundreds of great and small mounds of firm ground. By jumping from one of these mounds to the next, the entire swamp may be crossed, not only without danger, but dry-footed.
In spite of all this, one of these swamps put me in a position of much difficulty and embarrassment during one of my solitary excursions. I was sauntering quietly along, when suddenly a little butterfly fluttered past me. It was the first I had seen in this country, and my eagerness to catch it was proportionately great. I hastened after it; thought neither of swamp nor of danger, and in the heat of the chase did not observe that the mounds became every moment fewer and farther between. Soon I found myself in the middle of the swamp, and could neither advance nor retreat. Not a human being could I descry; the very animals were far from me; and this circumstance confirmed me as to the dangerous nature of the ground. Nothing remained for me but to fix my eyes upon one point of the landscape, and to step out boldly towards it. I was often obliged to hazard two or three steps into the swamp itself, in order to gain the next acclivity, upon which I would then stand triumphantly, to determine my farther progress. So long as I could distinguish traces of horses' hoofs, I had no fear; but even these soon disappeared, and I stood there alone in the morass. I could not remain for ever on my tower of observation, and had no resource but to take to the swamp once more. I must confess that I experienced a very uncomfortable feeling of apprehension when my foot sank suddenly into the soft mud; but when I found that it did not rise higher than the ankles, my courage returned; I stepped out boldly, and was fortunate enough to escape with the fright and a thorough wetting.
The most arduous posts in the country are those of the medical men and clergymen. Their sphere of action is very enlarged, particularly that of the medical man, whose practice sometimes extends over a distance of eighty to a hundred miles. When we add to this the severity of the winter, which lasts for seven or eight months, it seems marvellous that any one can be found to fill such a situation.
In winter the peasants often come with shovels, pickaxes, and horses to fetch the doctor. They then go before him, and hastily repair the worst part of the road; while the doctor rides sometimes on one horse, sometimes on another, that they may not sink under the fatigue. And thus the procession travels for many, many miles, through night and fog, through storm and snow, for on the doctor's promptitude life and death often hang. When he then returns, quite benumbed, and half dead with cold, to the bosom of his family, in the expectation of rest and refreshment, and to rejoice with his friends over the dangers and hardships he has escaped, the poor doctor is frequently compelled to set off at once on a new and important journey, before he has even had time to greet the dear ones at home.
Sometimes he is sent for by sea, where the danger is still greater on the storm-tost element.
- to have a good idea of time, was employed to strike the
- the climate too severe, and in 1844 she moved herself to
- the patients being her husband and children — and to
- where five hundred Sakyas quitted their families and did
- mud-banks as the tide falls. They occasionally possess
- Law was beyond the power of language fully to describe;
- shot and killed them, so that not one escaped. Having got
- — the new city which was built by king Ajatasatru. There
- or hedges under water, many fish which are left on the
- and where he walked (in meditation) and sat at the place
- laics are collected in crowds. They burn incense, light
- also give in a few words the main incidents in my father’s
- For three weeks Hanson had remained. During this time he
- present offerings to the Prajna-paramita,21 to Manjusri,22
- night without ceasing, till ninety days have been completed,
- the lustre of other people’s finery. Every mother can
- his fingers, right and left, and presently found slimy
- he worked at his most ungrateful task with unflagging industry.
- saw their fellow-disciples from Ts’in passing along,
- accept as a gift from me, given you now, the accompanying
- The other he ordered straight westward with orders to halt
- nearly eighteen months. In August following he made another
- a naraka in which to deal with wicked men; why should not
- or heavily, according to the circumstances (of each case).
- In the morning I asked a young Indian, who was wet to the
- so as to give her the appearance of being with child, falsely
- with a carpet for it to sit on, and appointed for it a
- be visible. Afterwards king Asoka, wishing to know where
- The wide heavens about her seemed to promise a greater
- be denied by those who, after I am gone, may remember anything
- are three monasteries, in all of which there are monks
- I went, and my heart still sinks within me as I reflect
- Into the disc of light, leaped, fantastic, the witch figure
- of all living. And so it was, that, having become Buddha,
- square, and the same in height. Near the top were laid
- gardens, and orchards, along with the resident populations
- he often spent much time with the white foreman of the
- twenty paces, she lifted up her hand, laid hold of a branch
- heart I took these on the next day to the office. With
- mouth of a valley, where there is Buddha’s pewter staff;10
- resources were at an end; it must be another's work to
- requested the World-honoured one to allow females to quit
- has, I maintain, no connection whatever with education.
- a fan of white silk;5 and the tears of sorrow involuntarily
- than the manners of these people. They generally began
- whether a nation was in a way to thrive. Whatever she saw
- it. The lictors at once went and reported to the king that
- ocean spreads out, a boundless expanse. There is no knowing
- reason to believe her dead, and that it was because of
- the Rama tope. By the side of it there was a pool, and